Security is the most essential part of communications. To keep data secure, it must be encrypted in one way or another. Ages long ago people used codes and translations that kept the data difficult to understand. However with the arrival of the first computer in WW2, decryption of transmissions was possible. Not only due to the used encryption (which was rather good), but also because sensitive data was transmitted over large area's. With network connections worldwide interception of data is much more easy to accomplish.

Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. Many deployed protocols are available and should be choose wisely.
Analyzing misconfigurations in existing systems is another main point of attention.

The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. Currently used popular public-key encryption and signature schemes (e.g., RSA and ElGamal) can be broken by quantum adversaries. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.e. non-quantum) communication. For example, it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state and the very act of reading data encoded in a quantum state changes the state. This is used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution. If the communication is intercept, just reading the data causes the original data stream to be destroyed.

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